-ADVANCED SOLUTIONS IN COATINGS TECHNOLOGY-

Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR)


ASR is the deleterious chemical reaction (within mature concrete) between moisture, alkali in the cement pore fluid and certain types of silica in concrete aggregate. Susceptible types of silica include strained or microcrystalline quartz, glass, cristobalite, tridymite, opal, flint, and chert. When ASR occurs, a gel is formed within the hardened concrete, which exerts an expansive force and may lead to widespread cracking and failure of the concrete. Basically there are three requirements for ASR to occur: ALKALI, REACTIVE SILICA and MOISTURE.

Solutions:

InnerSeal DPS The drawing of moisture into the natural capillary entries of concrete requires permeable alkali to start the siphoning action. InnerSeal DPS internally stabilizes concrete and changes the permeable alkali into non-expansive silica compounds and does not allow the siphoning action to start, thereby eliminating the entry of moisture. InnerSeal DPS effectively eliminates two of the three requirements for the occurrence of ASR, while still allowing the substrate to "breathe". For even greater protection against water intrusion, especially for outdoor applications, apply Hydro-Top penetrating sealer as a second layer of protection over InnerSeal DPS.

InnerSeal Densi-Dye InnerSeal Densi-Dye combines the ASR defense of InnerSeal DPS with the ability to be colored with the Wakefield color system. InnerSeal Densi-Dye can be used indoors or out, but must be top-coated with Hydro-Top or other compatible sealer to protect the color dyes from damage.. For a one-step application of InnerSeal protection combined with penetrating sealer and color, use InnerSeal CBE.

InnerSeal CBE is essentially a combination of InnerSeal DPS and Hydro-Top technology in a one step application that can be combined with the brilliant Wakefield Color System. InnerSeal CBE provides the highest level of ASR defense you can get, especially for outdoor applications. For the same protection in a two-step application, use Hydro-Top over InnerSeal DPS or InnerSeal Densi-Dye.

Concrete Spalling


Spalling is deterioration of the concrete, causing chunks of the concrete to separate or break off from the concrete structure. Spalling can be caused by several reasons: Extreme heat, corrosion of steel reinforcement, poor finishing and most commonly the freeze / thaw cycle of water within the concrete. The use of de-icing salts on unprotected concrete can also contribute to spalling.

Concrete Scaling


Scaling is the local flaking or peeling of the finished surface of hardened concrete. Generally, it starts as small patches which later may merge and extend to expose large areas. Most commonly, scaling is caused one (or a combination) of three main causes: the freeze / thaw cycle of moisture within the concrete, poor or premature finishing of the concrete surface, or the use of de-icing salts on un-protected concrete.

Solutions:

InnerSeal DPS InnerSeal DPS provides defense against all major causes of spalling and scaling. InnerSeal DPS internally seals, stabilizes and strengthens the concrete mass, combating poor finishing or low strength concrete. InnerSeal DPS has been shown to increase the compressive strength of concrete by over 60%. The crystalline structure created within the pores of the concrete not only seals and strengthens, it also acts to reflect and dissipate heat much more efficiently than bare concrete. Most importantly, with the pores of the concrete sealed, moisture can no longer saturate the concrete causing rebar corrosion and freeze damage.

InnerSeal Densi-Dye InnerSeal Densi-Dye combines the spalling defense of InnerSeal DPS with the ability to be colored with the Wakefield color system. InnerSeal Densi-Dye can be used indoors or out, but must be top-coated with Hydro-Top or other compatible sealer to protect the color dyes from damage.. For a one-step application of InnerSeal protection combined with penetrating sealer and color, use InnerSeal CBE.

InnerSeal CBE is essentially a combination of InnerSeal DPS and Hydro-Top technology in a one step application that can be combined with the brilliant Wakefield Color System. Except in situations of extreme heat (fire boxes, incinerators, ovens etc.) InnerSeal CBE provides the highest level of spalling / scaling defense you can get, especially for outdoor applications. For the same protection in a two-step application, use Hydro-Top over InnerSeal DPS or InnerSeal Densi-Dye.

Efflorescence or Mineral Deposits


Efflorescence is the condition caused when soluble salts and other water dispersible materials come to, and are deposited on the surface of concrete and mortar. Efflorescence is one of the most common problems associated with concrete and masonry. The most common reaction occurs when calcium hydroxide (lime) formed in the hydration reaction of portland cement is transported by water to the surface through capillaries in the concrete. There it combines with carbon dioxide from the air to produce calcium carbonate (an insoluble material) and water. But efflorescence can also be caused by hydroxides and sulfates of either sodium or potassium, which are much more soluble in water than calcium. And they form efflorescence more rapidly than calcium hydroxide. These salts can come from cement, aggregates, water, or admixtures. In it's early stages, efflorescence is easy to remove by pressure washing or scrubbing, but after it's transformation into calcium carbonate, removal is much more difficult. The best defense against efflorescence is to stop it before it starts. If there is no water or moisture moving through the concrete or masonry, there will be no efflorescence!

Solutions:

InnerSeal DPS On most concrete, InnerSeal DPS will stop efflorescence before it starts. InnerSeal DPS fights efflorescence in three ways. First it purges the minerals and salts that are already at the surface, second it locks the remaining alkali deep within the concrete so they cannot reach the surface, then seals the pores against water and moisture migration, therefore stopping the root cause of the problem. InnerSeal DPS can be used on all concrete, mortar, block and most natural stone masonry. DO NOT USE INNERSEAL DPS ON BRICK OR TILE! When combating efflorescence, Wakefield recommends applying Hydro-Top penetrating sealer over InnerSeal DPS as an additional layer of protection.

InnerSeal Densi-Dye The majority of efflorescence problems with concrete involve decorative or colored concrete. As moisture pushes alkali out of the concrete, a white powdery residue is left over your previously beautiful colored concrete. To make matters worse, the majority of decorative projects have a protective, color enhancing clear coat applied over the stained or dyed concrete. As moisture pushes the alkali closer to the surface, the top coat begins to flake, peel and fail as the alkaline minerals break the bond between the sealer and concrete surface. InnerSeal Densi-Dye is the most advanced color system ever developed, not only does it brilliantly color the concrete, it creates a permanent moisture vapor barrier within the concrete, stopping moisture, efflorescence and coating failures! After application, InnerSeal Densi-Dye may be top-coated with Hydro-Top or other compatible sealer.

InnerSeal CBE is essentially a combination of InnerSeal DPS and Hydro-Top technology in a one step application that can be combined with the brilliant Wakefield Color System. For concrete and concrete or cinder bock, InnerSeal CBE is your best line of defense against efflorescence, especially for outdoor applications. For the same protection in a two-step application, use Hydro-Top over InnerSeal DPS or InnerSeal Densi-Dye. DO NOT USE INNERSEAL CBE ON BRICK OR TILE!

Hydro-Top Sealer For most masonry applications, including brick, concrete pavers and manufactured or cultured stone, Hydro-Top is your weapon against efflorescence. To stop efflorescence and water intrusion, Hydro-Top should be applied immediately after mortar has cured (28 days). Apply liberally, being sure to saturate mortar joints completely. If efflorescence is already present on the masonry, specialized cleaning may be required before application of Hydro-Top.

Bacteria, Algae, Moss, Mold & Mildew


Living organisms are found on and within concrete and masonry both indoors and out. They are present because of moisture in the concrete or masonry. These Bacteria need water or moisture to live. If the moisture on or within the walls and floor is removed and prevented from coming back, the organisms will not return.

Solutions:

InnerSeal DPS InnerSeal DPS creates an internal barrier preventing the moisture from ever returning, thus solving the bacteria problem by keeping the concrete dry. DO NOT USE INNERSEAL DPS ON BRICK OR TILE. Wakefield recommends applying Hydro-Top penetrating sealer over InnerSeal DPS as an additional layer of protection against bacteria.

InnerSeal Densi-Dye To create a moisture barrier and add color to concrete, use InnerSeal Densi-Dye with Hydro-Top or other compatible top-coat..

InnerSeal CBE is essentially a combination of InnerSeal DPS and Hydro-Top technology in a one step application that can be combined with the brilliant Wakefield Color System. For concrete and concrete or cinder block, InnerSeal CBE is your best line of defense against algae, moss, mold, mildew, and bacteria, especially for outdoor applications. For the same protection in a two-step application, use Hydro-Top over InnerSeal DPS or InnerSeal Densi-Dye. DO NOT USE INNERSEAL CBE ON BRICK OR TILE!

Hydro-Top Sealer For most masonry applications, including brick, concrete pavers and manufactured or cultured stone, Hydro-Top is your weapon against bacteria. Hydro-Top creates a surface that is not only sealed against water, but a surface that algae and bacteria are not able to attach to. Hydro-Top should be applied immediately after mortar has cured (28 days). Apply liberally, being sure to saturate mortar joints completely.

Moisture / Vapor Transmission


Whenever concrete comes in contact with the ground or soil, moisture and moisture vapor is continually being drawn through the slab, and released into the atmosphere on the other side. Although conditions vary greatly, there is always enough moisture in the ground to present problems on slabs and sub floors. In many cases a concrete floor will seem to be dry because the moisture content is very small, and evaporates into the air as soon as it reaches the surface. When paint, epoxy or a floor covering is applied, evaporation is prevented and the moisture and alkali collect under the paint or flooring causing flaking, peeling, blistering and warping.

Solutions:

InnerSeal DPS InnerSeal DPS eliminates moisture / vapor transmission by creating a permanent internal moisture / vapor barrier within the concrete. This barrier stops both the moisture and alkali from moving through the slab and reaching the paint, epoxy or flooring system. No flooring system should ever be applied without first using InnerSeal DPS.

InnerSeal Densi-Dye InnerSeal Densi-Dye combines the permanent moisture / vapor barrier of InnerSeal DPS with brilliant color for worry free decorative interior floors. InnerSeal Densi-Dye is the most advanced concrete color system ever developed. Never worry about alkali or moisture related sealer, epoxy or polyurea failures again.

Concrete Dusting


Concrete dusting or chalking is the disintegration of the surface of mature concrete into tiny particles or "dust". This is no ordinary dust; it is sharp silicate which cuts into your machinery, electronics, skin and lungs. Dusting is caused by vehicle traffic, foot traffic, machinery, sweeping etc. Dusting is much worse on concrete that has been finished poorly or prematurely.

Solutions:

InnerSeal DPSInnerSeal DPS creates a chemical reaction within the concrete causing the billions of particulates to be solidified into one solid entity. The crystalline structure formed in the pores of the concrete not only stops dusting and chalking, it will increase the compressive strength of inferior or poorly finished concrete by up to 60%.

InnerSeal Densi-Dye InnerSeal Densi-Dye gives the same results as InnerSeal DPS, but with the addition of the Wakefield Color System. InnerSeal Densi-Dye must be top-coated with Hydro-Top penetrating sealer or other compatible sealer.

InnerSeal CBE is essentially a combination of InnerSeal DPS and Hydro-Top technology in a one step application that can be combined with the brilliant Wakefield Color System. InnerSeal CBE is perfect for outdoor applications and additional protection from water, stains and spills. For the same protection in a two-step application, use Hydro-Top over InnerSeal DPS or InnerSeal Densi-Dye.

Weak or Low Compressive Strength Concrete


The discovery of inferior concrete can immediately turn any project into a disaster. Concrete with a low compressive strength is usually contributed to one of two main causes: an error in production of the mix or the addition of too much water at the job site. Always consult a concrete engineer immediately when weak concrete is discovered!

Solutions:

InnerSeal DPS InnerSeal DPS has been shown to increase the compressive strength of concrete by up to 60%.

InnerSeal Densi-Dye Get the same increase in strength, but with the addition of brilliant color. InnerSeal Densi-dye must be top-coated with Hydro-Top penetrating sealer or other compatible sealer.

Failed Flooring System (VCT, hardwood, vinyl, tile)


Unfortunately flooring system failures are a common but preventable problem on concrete slabs. As concrete cures, water evaporates from the mix, leaving voids and pores in the concrete. The porous slab acts as a sponge, drawing moisture up from the ground. When a floor covering is applied to the slab, this drawing action is magnified. When this alkali rich moisture reaches the flooring adhesive it emulsifies and begins to deteriorate. The end result is alkali bubbles and blisters followed by warping and peeling of the flooring system

Solutions:

InnerSeal DPS InnerSeal DPS eliminates floor covering failures by creating a permanent internal moisture / vapor barrier within the concrete. This barrier stops both the moisture and alkali from moving through the slab and reaching the adhesive. No flooring system should ever be applied without first using InnerSeal DPS. The insurance and peace of mind from protecting an expensive flooring system from failure extends beyond the contractor to the architect, engineer, designer and especially the owner.

Peeling / Blistering Paint


The failure of paints that have been applied over concrete is most often due to a chemical reaction between alkali in the concrete and oils in the paint. This reaction is called saponification. This is the cause of the white film that is found on walls and floors and also the cause of flaking, peeling and blistering of the paint on the surface. Even in situations where saponification does not occur, adhesion problems, peeling, flaking, chalking and cracking are often still an issue on concrete. The root cause is still the alkali, lime and moisture in the concrete attacking the paint. Alkali rich concrete has an extremely high pH, which reduces the bonding strength of most paints, sealers and coatings.

Solutions:

InnerSeal DPSInnerSeal DPS eliminates saponification and paint failures on concrete by neutralizing alkali and creating a permanent internal barrier below the surface of the concrete. This barrier stops both moisture and alkali from ever coming into contact with the paint or coating. InnerSeal DPS also "etches" as it penetrates, creating it's own bonding agent. Testing has shown that InnerSeal DPS can extend the life of paint over concrete by up to 300%. No concrete should ever be painted without first using InnerSeal DPS.

Corrosion of Steel Reinforcement (Rebar)


Corrosion of steel within concrete is simply the formation of rust on the surface of the steel. Rust has four times the volume of the original steel, and none of it's structural properties. As steel begins to corrode within concrete, the bond between the two begins to break down and delamination and spalling often occur. The closer the steel is to the surface, the more likely it is to corrode. When steel rebar is used as reinforcement in extreme environments or where de-icing salts are present, rust and corrosion are a major problem.

Solutions:

InnerSeal DPS InnerSeal DPS creates an internal seal and barrier within the concrete to stop the penetration of water and salts. Simply put, if the steel is protected within the passive and alkaline environment of the concrete, corrosion cannot occur. This protection is especially important in modern tilt up and precast thin wall construction. InnerSeal DPS provides protection for the concrete while still allowing for adhesion of various decorative treatments and coatings.

InnerSeal Densi-Dye Get the same protection as InnerSeal DPS combined with the addition of brilliant color dye. InnerSeal Densi-dye must be top-coated with Hydro-Top penetrating sealer or other compatible sealer. Combining InnerSeal Densi-Dye with Hydro-Top in a two step application is extremely popular as a method to color and protect precast components and thin-wall building panels.

For a one step system -with the option to add brilliant color, use InnerSeal CBE. In recent testing, InnerSeal CBE showed over a 25% decrease in steel corrosion when compared to un-treated concrete. For tilt up and precast construction, there is no better system of protection especially when you consider the labor savings from a one step decorative and protective coating. InnerSeal CBE offers both steel and concrete unprecedented protection when exposed to salt and extreme conditions.

Water Intrusion / Penetration


The intrusion of water through concrete or masonry costs home owners, business owners and the insurance industry millions of dollars every year. Driving rain and hydrostatic pressure can push water through concrete block walls, foundations, concrete slabs, stone walls, brick walls and any other porous concrete or masonry structure. Wet or flooded basements are the most common case of water intrusion.

Solutions:

InnerSeal DPS InnerSeal DPS penetrates deep into concrete and block creating a permanent internal seal and barrier. When installed correctly and properly cured, InnerSeal DPS will actually hold back hydrostatic pressure and stop water from flowing into the porous concrete or masonry. In cases of water intrusion, both sides of walls or foundations should be treated with InnerSeal DPS to insure all pores are closed. Wakefield recommends a three step application for hydrostatic applications; two saturating coats of InnerSeal DPS followed by a final coat of InnerSeal CBE. Not only does the InnerSeal CBE give an extreme outer layer of protection, you also have the option of adding color. DO NOT APPLY INNERSEAL DPS OR INNERSEAL CBE TO BRICK.

InnerSeal CBE is an extremely effective barrier against water intrusion, especially on vertical concrete and stucco walls. InnerSeal CBE combines the internal sealing abilities of InnerSeal DPS and the water-repellency of Hydro-Top in an easy one-step application.

Hydro-Top Sealer Hydro-Top should be used to curb water intrusion on brick . Hydro-Top is extremely effective at stopping wind driven rain on all types of masonry walls.

Crumbling Mortar Around Natural Stone and Brick


Swimming pool decks, patios, sidewalks and porches are commonly overlaid with cut natural flagstone, limestone, slate and brick. Although the stones and brick are quite durable, the mortar joints between them are not. Mortar is much more porous than brick and natural stone, and quickly saturates with water from rain, snow, sprinklers etc. This constant saturation combined with freeze / thaw cycles causes the mortar to quickly begin to crack and crumble.

Solutions:

Horizontal Natural Stone Masonry

InnerSeal DPS Natural stone walkways, patios, porches and pool decks can be both enhanced and protected by a two step application of InnerSeal DPS and Hydro-Top penetrating sealer. InnerSeal DPS should be applied to the masonry as soon as the mortar has cured (28 days), being sure to saturate the mortar joints completely. Allow InnerSeal DPS to penetrate completely, then follow with Hydro-Top. For existing stone, all loose, cracked or crumbling mortar must be repaired before application. DO NOT APPLY INNERSEAL DPS TO TILE OR BRICK.

Brick

Hydro-Top SealerFor brick pool decks, patios, sidewalks, porches, walkways, etc. use only Hydro-Top penetrating concrete sealer. Hydro-Top will leave a slightly enhanced natural finish with no change to the texture or slip resistance of the floor.

Ugly Concrete, Concrete Block or Cultured Stone


No fancy detailed scientific description needed for this problem.

Solutions:

InnerSeal Densi-Dye InnerSeal Densi-Dye combined with the Wakefield Color System internally seals and brilliantly colors all kinds of concrete. InnerSeal Densi-Dye is safe, non-toxic and can be used indoors or out to create beautiful decorative stained floors, counter tops, faux finishes, inlays and more. InnerSeal Densi-Dye is the most advanced concrete color system ever developed. InnerSeal Densi-Dye requires a protective top-coat such as Hydro-Top penetrating sealer, Kinloch Atomic Top Coat or other compatible top-coat.

ColorSeal 3000 For a one step application of high tech protection combined with brilliant color, use the ColorSeal 3000 system. ColorSeal 3000 is the ultimate sealer and coloring system for all exterior decorative concrete such as swimming pool decks, broom swept driveways, aggregate driveways, patios, sidewalks, concrete or cinder blocks, tilt up construction and precast components. ColorSeal 3000 is chemical and hot tire resistant with a warm satin finish.